Images

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

© Gil Hedley 2018 ~ I share these images for your study only, here and now. I entrust you to respect donors, images, and copyrights. Thank you and, enjoy!

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Canteloupe skin: Notice the similarity of patterning between the skin of the canteloupe and the deep side of the dermis demonstrated in the next image.
A large whole canteloupe sitting on a wooden cutting board viewed closely so the complex pattern of its skin can be seen
A close up image of the underside of a swath of human skin, showing the connective tissue patterning in the dermis looking similar to the surface of a canteloupe.
Skin: This is the underside of the skin, revealing the fibrous connective tissue patterning of the dermis as it is being differentiated from the hypodermis, that fatty underlayer also known as the subcutaneous adipose, or superficial fascia.
Superficial fascia: Superficial fascia reflected and showing its fuzzy relationship to deep fascia. That white "cotton candy" is actually the dessicated (dried) "perifascial membranes" placed in tension in the dissection process revealing its "felted" collagen fiber organization.
Yellow superficial fascia being reflected from deep fascia, revealing the desicated perifascial membrane looking like cotton candy.
A yellow swath of superficial fascia is lifted up from the belly wall after having been differentiated from the underlying anterior rectus sheath.
Superficial fascia: Here is a swath of the yellow superficial fascia, also known as the hypodermis or subcutaneous adipose, at belly, differentiated and held up from deep fascia.
Superficial Fascia: At belly, differentiated and backlit. Light penetrates into our bodies and is biologically active.
Bright yellow-orange superficial fascia backlit with a bright light, looking almost like a sunset.
Superficial fascia of a female form dissected off of the body as a singular autonomous organ and laid out on a table alongside the body from which it came.
Superficial Fascia portrait: ~ "Venus-Mary" ~ The entire superficial fascia (subcutaneous adipose layer) of a female form dissected as an autonomous organ and demonstrated alongside the form from which it came. I share this to transform our vision of the fatty fleece beneath our skin so we might consider it with greater appreciation, curiosity and respect.

 

Superficial fascia as an autonomous organ, close up: This is a great endocrine organ, a lymphoid organ, an organ of metabolism and resource, an organ of movement and sensitivity, to name a few of its many important properties essential to human health and function.
Superficial fascia of a female form as an autonomous organ viewed closely and looking like a great yellow fleece or soft yellow sweater shaped like a person with legs, arms, belly and breasts.
Shiny silver deep fascia, the iliotibial tract, an aspect of the fascia lata, cleanly dissected.
Deep Fascia: Dense, regular, fibrous deep fascia cleared of overlying superficial fascia and perifascial membranes at iliotibial band overlying vastus lateralis muscle.
Deep fascia: The deep fascia overlying the quadriceps femoris muscle is also known as the fascia lata, meaning the "broad" fascia (often misspelled "fascia latta"). Note the straight, orderly, regular array of long collageneous fibers which characterize this tissue. Note wisps of overlying perifascial membranes (aka "fuzz" or "filmy fascia") yet to be removed.
Silver deep fascia, showing orderly, regular white collagenous fibers forming the fascia lata, with overlying perifascial membranes still visible.
A long longitudinal incision of the fascia lata reflected in tension reveals the underlying felted perifascial membrane being pulled apart, and also reveals the muscle tissue of the quadriceps femoris underlying it.
"Perifascia": Fascia lata cut and reflected showing the membranous perifascia placed in tension and looking "fuzzy." This tissue enables the differential movement between the deep fascia and the muscle tissue of the quadriceps femoris muscle. I put "perifascia" in quotes because I made up the word, which means "the fascia that's around/near the fascia" :) I also call it "filmy fascia," and used to call it "fuzz!"
Deep Fascia: Deep side of iliotibial (IT) band, demonstrating the triple-layer of dense collagenous fiber bundles, ordered at 90º relative to each other, which comprise this aspect of the fascia lata.
Underside of iliotibial band of deep, regular, fibrous fascia lata is revealed, demonstrating thick triple layer of collagenous fibers highly organized and at right angles to each other.
The reddish rectus femoris tissue is lifted up to show the cotton-candy-like perifascial membranes through which it is related to the silvery underlying surface of the vastus intermedius muscle tissue.
Perifascia, aka "fuzz": Lifting the rectus femoris, its continuous relationship with the vastus intermedius via the intervening perifascial membrane is demonstrated. The "fuzziness" is from the "felted" configuration of the collagen fiber distribution demonstrated by pulling it apart, in contrast to the regular linear patterning of the deep fascia.
Perifascia: After disrupting through dissection their fuzzy, felted continuity, we see the shiny, transparent, slippery, filmy perifascial membranes intervening between the deep side of the rectus femoris muscle (above) and the vastus intermedius (beneath). The perifascial membrane connecting them (formerly known as "fuzz") belongs there! It enables both continuity of tissues and differential movement.
With the fuzz cleared, the shiny, slippery, transparent, filmy, membranous perifascia is evident overlying the silvery tendonous surfaces within thigh.
The entire peritoneum, a membranous fascial sack surrounding the abdominal organs, is shown in its full extent, differentiated from the abdominal wall and diaphragm which are reflected superiorly. The peritoneum forms a thin veil between the viewer and the underlying viscera. Visible yellow thickening at midline above umbilicus, and below it are visible the tensional bands of the median and medial umbilical ligaments deep to the peritoneum. Copyright Gil Hedley 2018.
Peritoneum: Respiratory diaphragm and the abdominal wall differentiated and reflected from the underlying peritoneum, the visceral fascial membrane that surrounds the abdominal viscera (organs).
Dura mater in situ: The superior sagittal sinus and the transverse sinuses are here opened to demonstrate the path of venus blood flow from the brain as it returns to the general circulation. The fact that the dura mater has two layers, both an outer periosteal layer lining the cranium and an inner meningeal layer adherent to it, create the possibility for channels for venous blood flow within them.
An overhead view of the fibrous, opaque dura mater covering the brain with the top of the skull removed. At midline a channel is opened as well as lower down towards base of skull, where a transverse reddish channel is opened revealing the superior sagittal and transverse sinuses for venus blood. Copyright Gil Hedley 2018.
The whole brain and spinal cord removed from body and held aloft by blue gloved hand, with the entire dura mater still wrapping this ex situ demonstration of the central nervous system. Copyright Gil Hedley 2018.
Whole dura mater intact over brain and spinal cord: Thanks to dissection course participants and dedicated somanauts Jim Donak and Jory Bell for doing the hard work to prepare this demonstration of the entire dura mater of the central nervous system ex situ, with brain and spinal cord still within.
Brain: The human brain ex situ, with dura mater and arachnoid removed, exposing the pia mater, which is the 2-3 cell thick meningeal layer that covers the outer surface of the brain.
The whole brain viewed from above, held in blue gloved hands over a circular stainless steel platter, with membranes removed to reveal the convolutions of the gyri and sulci of the two hemispheres. Copyright Gil Hedley 2018.
Straight on view of bottom portion of cranial vault with tentorium cerebelii removed, demonstrating the cerebellum in situ with its vermis evident along with the trigeminal and several other cranial nerves. Copyright Gil Hedley 2018.
Cerebellum in situ: The brainstem has been cut and the cerebrum removed along with the meninges, including the tentorium cerebelii, to reveal the cerebellum, or "hindbrain," with numerous cut and intact cranial nerves also visible.
Cauda equina and filum terminale: The dura mater and arachnoid of the spinal cord spinal cord have been incised to reveal the cauda equina, and more specifically, the filum terminale, which extends the pia mater surrounding the spinal cord beyond the conus medullaris all the way to the coccyx.
The pinkish tail of the spinal cord ex situ tapering to the gaggle of nerves processing inferiorly which form the cauda equina, held from beneath it lengthwise over the five inch wide raised lip of a stainless steel table with a sky blue gloved hand. The pink membranous thread of the filum terminale is pulled taut from below and highlighted from underneath with a sky blue gloved finger. Copyright Gil Hedley 2018.
Close up view of lateral right side of body with ribcage removed to demonstrate a greyish pink five lobed right lung, the upper being the largest, then three lower lobes and another medial to the largest. Copyright Gil Hedley 2018.
Right lung with 5 lobes: Although it is typical for the right lung to have three lobes, it sometimes has more, or less. In this instance there are five, due to a variation in the branching of the bronchial tree.
Thoracic duct in situ: The thoracic duct is the largest vessel of the lymphatic system draining the large majority of the lymph fluids back to the general circulation. It runs lengthwise along the spine of the thorax proximate to the thoracic aorta and other mediastinal structures.
Blue gloved hands in eviscerated thorax, gently lifting up for better viewing the thin tortuous vessel, the thoracic duct, still intact along the thoracic spine. Copyright Gil Hedley 2018.
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